Choosing the right database is a critical choice when building any software application. All databases have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to performance, so deciding which database has the most benefits and the most minor downsides for your specific use case and data model is an important decision. Below you will find an overview of the key concepts, architecture, features, use cases, and pricing models of AWS Timestream and MongoDB so you can quickly see how they compare against each other.
The primary purpose of this article is to compare how AWS Timestream and MongoDB perform for workloads involving time series data, not for all possible use cases. Time series data typically presents a unique challenge in terms of database performance. This is due to the high volume of data being written and the query patterns to access that data. This article doesn’t intend to make the case for which database is better; it simply provides an overview of each database so you can make an informed decision.
AWS Timestream vs MongoDB Breakdown
Time series database
Timestream is a fully managed, serverless time series database service that is only available on AWS.
MongoDB uses a flexible, JSON-like document model for storing data, which allows for dynamic schema changes without downtime. It supports ad hoc queries, indexing, and real-time aggregation. MongoDB can be deployed as a standalone server, in a replica set configuration for high availability, or as a sharded cluster for horizontal scaling. It is also available as a managed cloud service called MongoDB Atlas, which provides additional features like automated backups, monitoring, and global distribution.
SSPL for community edition, commercial licenses for other versions
Monitoring, observability, IoT, real-time analytics
Content management systems, mobile applications, real-time analytics, IoT data management, e-commerce platforms
Serverless and automatically scalable, handling ingestion, storage, and query workload without manual intervention
Horizontally scalable with support for data sharding, replication, and automatic load balancing
AWS Timestream Overview
AWS Timestream is a fully managed, serverless time series database service developed by Amazon Web Services (AWS). Launched in 2020, Timestream is designed specifically for handling time series data, making it an ideal choice for IoT, monitoring, and analytics applications that require high ingestion rates, efficient storage, and fast querying capabilities. As a part of the AWS ecosystem, Timestream seamlessly integrates with other AWS services, simplifying the process of building and deploying time series applications in the cloud.
MongoDB is a popular, open-source NoSQL database launched in 2009. Designed to handle large volumes of unstructured and semi-structured data, MongoDB offers a flexible, schema-less data model, horizontal scalability, and high performance. Its ease of use, JSON-based document storage, and support for a wide range of programming languages have contributed to its widespread adoption across various industries and applications.
AWS Timestream for Time Series Data
AWS Timestream is designed specifically for handling time series data, making it a suitable choice for a wide range of applications that require high ingestion rates, efficient storage, and fast querying capabilities. Its dual-tiered storage architecture, consisting of the Memory Store and Magnetic Store, allows Timestream to automatically manage data retention and optimize storage costs based on data age and access patterns. Additionally, Timestream supports SQL-like querying and integrates with popular analytics tools, making it easy for users to gain insights from their time series data.
MongoDB for Time Series Data
Although MongoDB is a general-purpose NoSQL database, it can be used for storing and processing time series data. The flexible data model of MongoDB allows for easy adaptation to the evolving structure of time series data, such as the addition of new metrics or the modification of existing ones. MongoDB provides built-in support for time-to-live (TTL) indexes, which automatically expire old data after a specified time period, making it suitable for managing large volumes of time series data with a limited storage capacity. MongoDB has also recently added a custom columnar storage engine and time series collection for time series use cases, meant to improve performance over the default MongoDB storage engine in terms of data compression and query performance.
AWS Timestream Key Concepts
- Memory Store: In AWS Timestream, the Memory Store is a component that stores recent, mutable time series data in memory for fast querying and analysis.
- Magnetic Store: The Magnetic Store in AWS Timestream is responsible for storing historical, immutable time series data on disk for cost-efficient, long-term storage.
- Time-to-Live (TTL): AWS Timestream allows users to set a TTL on their time series data, which determines how long data is retained in the Memory Store before being moved to the Magnetic Store or deleted.
MongoDB Key Concepts
Some key terminology and concepts specific to MongoDB include:
- Database: A MongoDB database is a container for collections, which are groups of related documents.
- Collection: A collection in MongoDB is analogous to a table in relational databases, holding a set of documents.
- Document: A document in MongoDB is a single record, stored in a JSON-like format called BSON (Binary JSON). Documents within a collection can have different structures.
- Field: A field is a key-value pair within a document, similar to an attribute or column in a relational database.
- Index: An index in MongoDB is a data structure that improves the query performance on specific fields within a collection.
AWS Timestream Architecture
Timestream is built on a serverless, distributed architecture that supports SQL-like querying capabilities. Its data model is specifically tailored for time series data, using time-stamped records and a flexible schema that can accommodate varying data granularities and dimensions. The core components of Timestream’s architecture include the Memory Store and the Magnetic Store, which together manage data retention, storage, and querying. The Memory Store is optimized for fast querying of recent data, while the Magnetic Store provides cost-efficient, long-term storage for historical data.
MongoDB’s architecture is centered around its flexible, document-based data model. As a NoSQL database, MongoDB supports a schema-less structure, which allows for the storage and querying of diverse data types, such as nested arrays and documents. MongoDB can be deployed as a standalone server, a replica set, or a sharded cluster. Replica sets provide high availability through automatic failover and data redundancy, while sharded clusters enable horizontal scaling and load balancing by distributing data across multiple servers based on a shard key.
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AWS Timestream Features
AWS Timestream’s serverless architecture eliminates the need for users to manage or provision infrastructure, making it easy to scale and reducing operational overhead.
Timestream’s dual-tiered storage architecture, consisting of the Memory Store and Magnetic Store, automatically manages data retention and optimizes storage costs based on data age and access patterns.
AWS Timestream supports SQL-like querying and integrates with popular analytics tools, making it easy for users to gain insights from their time series data.
Flexible Data Model
MongoDB’s schema-less data model allows for the storage and querying of diverse data types, making it well-suited for handling complex and evolving data structures.
MongoDB’s replica set feature ensures high availability through automatic failover and data redundancy.
MongoDB’s sharded cluster architecture enables horizontal scaling and load balancing, allowing it to handle large-scale data processing and querying.
AWS Timestream Use Cases
IoT device monitoring
AWS Timestream’s support for high ingestion rates and efficient storage makes it an ideal choice for monitoring and analyzing data from IoT devices, such as sensors and smart appliances.
Application performance monitoring
Timestream’s fast querying capabilities and ability to handle large volumes of time series data make it suitable for application performance monitoring, allowing users to track and analyze key performance indicators in real-time and identify bottlenecks or issues.
AWS Timestream can be used to monitor and analyze infrastructure metrics, such as CPU utilization, memory usage, and network traffic, enabling organizations to optimize resource utilization, identify potential issues, and maintain a high level of performance for their critical systems.
MongoDB Use Cases
Content Management Systems
MongoDB’s flexible data model makes it an ideal choice for content management systems, which often require the ability to store and manage diverse content types, such as articles, images, and videos. The schema-less nature of MongoDB allows for easy adaptation to changing content structures and requirements.
IoT Data Storage and Analytics
MongoDB’s support for high data volumes and horizontal scalability makes it suitable for storing and processing data generated by IoT devices, such as sensor readings and device logs. Its ability to index and query data efficiently allows for real-time analytics and monitoring of IoT devices.
MongoDB’s flexibility and performance features make it an excellent choice for e-commerce platforms, where diverse product information, customer data, and transaction records need to be stored and queried efficiently. The flexible data model enables easy adaptation to changes in product attributes and customer preferences, while the high availability and scalability features ensure a smooth and responsive user experience.
AWS Timestream Pricing Model
AWS Timestream offers a pay-as-you-go pricing model based on data ingestion, storage, and query execution. Ingestion costs are determined by the volume of data ingested into Timestream, while storage costs are based on the amount of data stored in the Memory Store and Magnetic Store. Query execution costs are calculated based on the amount of data scanned and processed during query execution. Timestream also offers a free tier for users to explore the service and build proof-of-concept applications without incurring costs.
MongoDB Pricing Model
MongoDB offers various pricing options, including a free, open-source Community Edition and a commercial Enterprise Edition, which includes advanced features, management tools, and support. MongoDB Inc. also offers a fully managed cloud-based database-as-a-service, MongoDB Atlas, with a pay-as-you-go pricing model based on storage, data transfer, and compute resources. MongoDB Atlas offers a free tier with limited resources for users who want to try the service without incurring costs.
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