Choosing the right database is a critical choice when building any software application. All databases have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to performance, so deciding which database has the most benefits and the most minor downsides for your specific use case and data model is an important decision. Below you will find an overview of the key concepts, architecture, features, use cases, and pricing models of Google BigQuery and MySQL so you can quickly see how they compare against each other.
The primary purpose of this article is to compare how Google BigQuery and MySQL perform for workloads involving time series data, not for all possible use cases. Time series data typically presents a unique challenge in terms of database performance. This is due to the high volume of data being written and the query patterns to access that data. This article doesn’t intend to make the case for which database is better; it simply provides an overview of each database so you can make an informed decision.
Google BigQuery vs MySQL Breakdown
BigQuery is a fully managed, serverless data warehouse provided by Google Cloud Platform. It is designed for high-performance analytics and utilizes Google’s infrastructure for data processing. BigQuery uses a columnar storage format for fast querying and supports standard SQL. Data is automatically sharded and replicated across multiple availability zones within a Google Cloud region
MySQL uses a client-server model with a multi-layered server design. It supports the SQL query language and offers various storage engines, such as InnoDB and MyISAM, for different use cases. MySQL can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or as a managed service.
GNU General Public License v2 (for the open-source Community Edition)
Business analytics, large-scale data processing, data integration
Web applications, e-commerce, data warehousing, content management systems, business applications
Serverless, petabyte-scale data warehouse that can handle massive amounts of data with no upfront capacity planning required
Supports vertical scaling by adding more resources to a single node; horizontal scaling can be achieved through replication, sharding, and third-party tools
Google BigQuery Overview
Google BigQuery is a fully-managed, serverless data warehouse and analytics platform developed by Google Cloud. Launched in 2011, BigQuery is designed to handle large-scale data processing and querying, enabling users to analyze massive datasets in real-time. With a focus on performance, scalability, and ease of use, BigQuery is suitable for a wide range of data analytics use cases, including business intelligence, log analysis, and machine learning.
MySQL is an open source relational database management system that was first released in 1995. It is one of the most popular databases worldwide due to its ease of use, reliability, and performance. MySQL is widely used for web applications, online transaction processing, and data warehousing. Oracle Corporation acquired MySQL in 2010, but it remains open source software with an active community of contributors.
Google BigQuery for Time Series Data
BigQuery can be used for storing and analyzing time series data, although it is more focused on traditional data warehouse use cases. BigQuery may struggle for use cases where low latency response times are required
MySQL for Time Series Data
MySQL can be used for storing and analyzing time series data, but it will not be as efficient as a dedicated time series databases. MySQL’s flexibility and support for various indexing techniques can make it a suitable choice for small to medium sized time series datasets. For large-scale time series data workloads, with high write throughput or use cases where low latency queries are required, MySQL will tend to struggle unless highly customized.
Google BigQuery Key Concepts
Some important concepts related to Google BigQuery include:
- Projects: A project in BigQuery represents a top-level container for resources such as datasets, tables, and views.
- Datasets: A dataset is a container for tables, views, and other data resources in BigQuery.
- Tables: Tables are the primary data storage structure in BigQuery and consist of rows and columns.
- Schema: A schema defines the structure of a table, including column names, data types, and constraints.
MySQL Key Concepts
- Table: A collection of related data organized in rows and columns, which is the primary structure for storing data in MySQL.
- Primary Key: A unique identifier for each row in a table, used to enforce data integrity and enable efficient querying.
- Foreign Key: A column or set of columns in a table that refers to the primary key in another table, used to establish relationships between tables.
Google BigQuery Architecture
Google BigQuery’s architecture is built on top of Google’s distributed infrastructure and is designed for high performance and scalability. At its core, BigQuery uses a columnar storage format called Capacitor, which enables efficient data compression and fast query performance. Data is automatically partitioned and distributed across multiple storage nodes, providing high availability and fault tolerance. BigQuery’s serverless architecture automatically allocates resources for queries and data storage, eliminating the need for users to manage infrastructure or capacity planning.
MySQL is a relational database management system that uses SQL for defining and manipulating data. It follows the client-server model, where a MySQL server accepts connections from multiple clients and processes their queries. MySQL’s architecture includes a storage engine framework that allows users to choose from different storage engines, such as InnoDB, MyISAM, or Memory, to optimize the database for specific use cases.
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Google BigQuery Features
BigQuery’s columnar storage format, Capacitor, enables efficient data compression and fast query performance, making it suitable for large-scale data analytics.
Integration with Google Cloud
BigQuery integrates seamlessly with other Google Cloud services, such as Cloud Storage, Dataflow, and Pub/Sub, making it easy to ingest, process, and analyze data from various sources.
Machine Learning Integration
BigQuery ML enables users to create and deploy machine learning models directly within BigQuery, simplifying the process of building and deploying machine learning applications.
MySQL supports transactions and adheres to the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) properties, ensuring data integrity and consistency.
MySQL can scale both vertically and horizontally, depending on the storage engine and configuration.
Replication and high availability
MySQL supports various replication techniques, including master-slave and master-master replication, to provide high availability and fault tolerance.
Google BigQuery Use Cases
Business Intelligence and Reporting
BigQuery is widely used for business intelligence and reporting, enabling users to analyze large volumes of data and generate insights to inform decision-making. Its fast query performance and seamless integration with popular BI tools, such as Google Data Studio and Tableau, make it an ideal solution for this use case.
Machine Learning and Predictive Analytics
BigQuery ML enables users to create and deploy machine learning models directly within BigQuery, simplifying the process of building and deploying machine learning applications. BigQuery’s fast query performance and support for large-scale data processing make it suitable for predictive analytics use cases.
Data Warehousing and ETL
BigQuery’s distributed architecture and columnar storage format make it an excellent choice for data warehousing and ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) workflows. Its seamless integration with other Google Cloud services, such as Cloud Storage and Dataflow, simplifies the process of ingesting and processing data from various sources.
MySQL Use Cases
MySQL is a popular choice for powering web applications, content management systems, and e-commerce platforms due to its flexibility, ease of use, and performance.
Online transaction processing (OLTP)
MySQL is suitable for OLTP systems that require high concurrency, fast response times, and support for transactions.
While not specifically designed for data warehousing, MySQL can be used for small to medium-sized data warehouses, leveraging its support for indexing, partitioning, and other optimization techniques.
Google BigQuery Pricing Model
Google BigQuery pricing is based on a pay-as-you-go model, with costs determined by data storage, query, and streaming. There are two main components to BigQuery pricing:
- Storage Pricing: Storage costs are based on the amount of data stored in BigQuery. Users are billed for both active and long-term storage, with long-term storage offered at a discounted rate for infrequently accessed data.
- Query Pricing: Query costs are based on the amount of data processed during a query. Users can choose between on-demand pricing, where they pay for the data processed per query, or flat-rate pricing, which provides a fixed monthly cost for a certain amount of query capacity.
MySQL Pricing Model
MySQL is available in multiple editions with different feature sets and pricing models. The MySQL Community Edition is open source and free to use, while the MySQL Enterprise Edition includes additional features, such as advanced security, monitoring, and management tools, and requires a subscription. Pricing for the Enterprise Edition depends on the number of server instances and the level of support required.
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