Choosing the right database is a critical choice when building any software application. All databases have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to performance, so deciding which database has the most benefits and the most minor downsides for your specific use case and data model is an important decision. Below you will find an overview of the key concepts, architecture, features, use cases, and pricing models of Azure Data Explorer and Google BigQuery so you can quickly see how they compare against each other.
The primary purpose of this article is to compare how Azure Data Explorer and Google BigQuery perform for workloads involving time series data, not for all possible use cases. Time series data typically presents a unique challenge in terms of database performance. This is due to the high volume of data being written and the query patterns to access that data. This article doesn’t intend to make the case for which database is better; it simply provides an overview of each database so you can make an informed decision.
Azure Data Explorer vs Google BigQuery Breakdown
ADX can be deployed in the Azure cloud as a managed service and is easily integrated with other Azure services and tools for seamless data processing and analytics.
BigQuery is a fully managed, serverless data warehouse provided by Google Cloud Platform. It is designed for high-performance analytics and utilizes Google’s infrastructure for data processing. BigQuery uses a columnar storage format for fast querying and supports standard SQL. Data is automatically sharded and replicated across multiple availability zones within a Google Cloud region
Log and telemetry data analysis, real-time analytics, security and compliance analysis, IoT data processing
Business analytics, large-scale data processing, data integration
Highly scalable with support for horizontal scaling, sharding, and partitioning
Serverless, petabyte-scale data warehouse that can handle massive amounts of data with no upfront capacity planning required
Azure Data Explorer Overview
Azure Data Explorer is a cloud-based, fully managed, big data analytics platform offered as part of the Microsoft Azure platform. It was announced by Microsoft in 2018 and is available as a PaaS offering. Azure Data Explorer provides high-performance capabilities for ingesting and querying telemetry, logs, and time series data.
Google BigQuery Overview
Google BigQuery is a fully-managed, serverless data warehouse and analytics platform developed by Google Cloud. Launched in 2011, BigQuery is designed to handle large-scale data processing and querying, enabling users to analyze massive datasets in real-time. With a focus on performance, scalability, and ease of use, BigQuery is suitable for a wide range of data analytics use cases, including business intelligence, log analysis, and machine learning.
Azure Data Explorer for Time Series Data
Azure Data Explorer is well-suited for handling time series data. Its high-performance capabilities and ability to ingest large volumes of data make it suitable for analyzing and querying time series data in near real-time. With its advanced query operators, such as calculated columns, searching and filtering on rows, group by-aggregates, and joins, Azure Data Explorer enables efficient analysis of time series data. Its scalable architecture and distributed nature ensure that it can handle the velocity and volume requirements of time series data effectively.
Google BigQuery for Time Series Data
BigQuery can be used for storing and analyzing time series data, although it is more focused on traditional data warehouse use cases. BigQuery may struggle for use cases where low latency response times are required
Azure Data Explorer Key Concepts
- Relational Data Model: Azure Data Explorer is a distributed database based on relational database management systems. It supports entities such as databases, tables, functions, and columns. Unlike traditional RDBMS, Azure Data Explorer does not enforce constraints like key uniqueness, primary keys, or foreign keys. Instead, the necessary relationships are established at query time.
- Kusto Query Language (KQL): Azure Data Explorer uses KQL, a powerful and expressive query language, to enable users to explore and analyze their data with ease.
- Extents: In Azure Data Explorer, data is organized into units called extents, which are immutable, compressed sets of records that can be efficiently stored and queried.
Google BigQuery Key Concepts
Some important concepts related to Google BigQuery include:
- Projects: A project in BigQuery represents a top-level container for resources such as datasets, tables, and views.
- Datasets: A dataset is a container for tables, views, and other data resources in BigQuery.
- Tables: Tables are the primary data storage structure in BigQuery and consist of rows and columns.
- Schema: A schema defines the structure of a table, including column names, data types, and constraints.
Azure Data Explorer Architecture
Azure Data Explorer is built on a cloud-native, distributed architecture that supports both NoSQL and SQL-like querying capabilities. It is a columnar storage-based database that leverages compressed, immutable data extents for efficient storage and retrieval. The core components of Azure Data Explorer’s architecture include the Control Plane, Data Management, and Query Processing. The Control Plane is responsible for managing resources and metadata, while the Data Management component handles data ingestion and organization. Query Processing is responsible for executing queries and returning results to users.
Google BigQuery Architecture
Google BigQuery’s architecture is built on top of Google’s distributed infrastructure and is designed for high performance and scalability. At its core, BigQuery uses a columnar storage format called Capacitor, which enables efficient data compression and fast query performance. Data is automatically partitioned and distributed across multiple storage nodes, providing high availability and fault tolerance. BigQuery’s serverless architecture automatically allocates resources for queries and data storage, eliminating the need for users to manage infrastructure or capacity planning.
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Azure Data Explorer Features
High-performance data ingestion
Azure Data Explorer can ingest data at a rate of 200 MB per second per node, offering fast and efficient data ingestion capabilities.
Azure Data Explorer integrates seamlessly with popular data visualization tools like Power BI, Grafana, and Jupyter Notebooks, allowing users to easily visualize and analyze their data.
The Kusto Query Language (KQL) supports advanced analytics features such as time series analysis, pattern recognition, and anomaly detection, enabling users to gain deeper insights from their data.
Unlike traditional relational databases, Azure Data Explorer does not enforce constraints like key uniqueness, primary keys, or foreign keys. This flexibility allows for dynamic schema changes and the ability to handle semi-structured and unstructured data.
Google BigQuery Features
BigQuery’s columnar storage format, Capacitor, enables efficient data compression and fast query performance, making it suitable for large-scale data analytics.
Integration with Google Cloud
BigQuery integrates seamlessly with other Google Cloud services, such as Cloud Storage, Dataflow, and Pub/Sub, making it easy to ingest, process, and analyze data from various sources.
Machine Learning Integration
BigQuery ML enables users to create and deploy machine learning models directly within BigQuery, simplifying the process of building and deploying machine learning applications.
Azure Data Explorer Use Cases
Azure Data Explorer is commonly used for log analytics, where it can ingest, store, and analyze large volumes of log data generated by applications, servers, and infrastructure. Organizations can use Azure Data Explorer to monitor application performance, troubleshoot issues, detect anomalies, and gain insights into user behavior. The ability to analyze log data in near real-time enables proactive issue resolution and improved operational efficiency.
Azure Data Explorer is well-suited for telemetry analytics, where it can process and analyze data generated by IoT devices, sensors, and applications. Organizations can use Azure Data Explorer to monitor device health, optimize resource utilization, and detect anomalies in telemetry data. The platform’s scalability and high-performance capabilities make it ideal for handling the large volumes of data generated by IoT devices.
Time series analysis
Azure Data Explorer is used for time series analysis, where it can ingest and analyze time-stamped data points collected over time. This use case is applicable in various industries, including finance, healthcare, manufacturing, and energy. Organizations can use Azure Data Explorer to analyze trends, detect patterns, and forecast future events based on historical time series data. The platform’s advanced query operators and real-time analysis capabilities enable organizations to derive valuable insights from time series data.
Google BigQuery Use Cases
Business Intelligence and Reporting
BigQuery is widely used for business intelligence and reporting, enabling users to analyze large volumes of data and generate insights to inform decision-making. Its fast query performance and seamless integration with popular BI tools, such as Google Data Studio and Tableau, make it an ideal solution for this use case.
Machine Learning and Predictive Analytics
BigQuery ML enables users to create and deploy machine learning models directly within BigQuery, simplifying the process of building and deploying machine learning applications. BigQuery’s fast query performance and support for large-scale data processing make it suitable for predictive analytics use cases.
Data Warehousing and ETL
BigQuery’s distributed architecture and columnar storage format make it an excellent choice for data warehousing and ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) workflows. Its seamless integration with other Google Cloud services, such as Cloud Storage and Dataflow, simplifies the process of ingesting and processing data from various sources.
Azure Data Explorer Pricing Model
Azure Data Explorer’s pricing model is based on a pay-as-you-go approach, where customers are billed based on their usage of the service. The pricing is determined by factors such as the amount of data ingested, the amount of data stored, and the number of queries executed. Additionally, customers can choose between different pricing tiers that offer varying levels of performance and features. Azure Data Explorer also provides options for reserved capacity, which allows customers to reserve resources for a fixed period of time at a discounted rate.
Google BigQuery Pricing Model
Google BigQuery pricing is based on a pay-as-you-go model, with costs determined by data storage, query, and streaming. There are two main components to BigQuery pricing:
- Storage Pricing: Storage costs are based on the amount of data stored in BigQuery. Users are billed for both active and long-term storage, with long-term storage offered at a discounted rate for infrequently accessed data.
- Query Pricing: Query costs are based on the amount of data processed during a query. Users can choose between on-demand pricing, where they pay for the data processed per query, or flat-rate pricing, which provides a fixed monthly cost for a certain amount of query capacity.
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