Choosing the right database is a critical choice when building any software application. All databases have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to performance, so deciding which database has the most benefits and the most minor downsides for your specific use case and data model is an important decision. Below you will find an overview of the key concepts, architecture, features, use cases, and pricing models of Google BigQuery and OSI PI Data Historian so you can quickly see how they compare against each other.
The primary purpose of this article is to compare how Google BigQuery and OSI PI Data Historian perform for workloads involving time series data, not for all possible use cases. Time series data typically presents a unique challenge in terms of database performance. This is due to the high volume of data being written and the query patterns to access that data. This article doesn’t intend to make the case for which database is better; it simply provides an overview of each database so you can make an informed decision.
Google BigQuery vs OSI PI Data Historian Breakdown
Time series database/data historian
BigQuery is a fully managed, serverless data warehouse provided by Google Cloud Platform. It is designed for high-performance analytics and utilizes Google’s infrastructure for data processing. BigQuery uses a columnar storage format for fast querying and supports standard SQL. Data is automatically sharded and replicated across multiple availability zones within a Google Cloud region
OSIsoft PI System is a suite of software products designed for real-time data collection, storage, and analysis of time series data in industrial environments. The PI System is built around the PI Server, which stores, processes, and serves data to clients, and it can be deployed on-premises or in the cloud.
Business analytics, large-scale data processing, data integration
Industrial data management, real-time monitoring, asset health tracking, predictive maintenance, energy management
Serverless, petabyte-scale data warehouse that can handle massive amounts of data with no upfront capacity planning required
Supports horizontal scaling through distributed architecture, data replication, and data federation for large-scale deployments
Google BigQuery Overview
Google BigQuery is a fully-managed, serverless data warehouse and analytics platform developed by Google Cloud. Launched in 2011, BigQuery is designed to handle large-scale data processing and querying, enabling users to analyze massive datasets in real-time. With a focus on performance, scalability, and ease of use, BigQuery is suitable for a wide range of data analytics use cases, including business intelligence, log analysis, and machine learning.
OSI PI Data Historian Overview
OSI PI, also known as OSIsoft PI System, is an enterprise-level data management and analytics platform specifically designed for handling time series data from industrial processes, sensors, and other sources. Developed by OSIsoft (acquired by AVEVA in 2021), the PI System has been widely used in various industries such as energy, manufacturing, utilities, and pharmaceuticals since its introduction in the 1980s. It provides the ability to collect, store, analyze, and visualize large volumes of time series data in real-time, allowing organizations to gain insights, optimize processes, and improve decision-making.
Google BigQuery for Time Series Data
BigQuery can be used for storing and analyzing time series data, although it is more focused on traditional data warehouse use cases. BigQuery may struggle for use cases where low latency response times are required
OSI PI Data Historian for Time Series Data
OSI PI was created for storing time series data, making it an ideal choice for organizations that need to manage large volumes of sensor and process data. Its architecture and components are optimized for collecting, storing, and analyzing time series data with high efficiency and minimal latency. The PI System’s scalability and performance make it a suitable solution for organizations dealing with vast amounts of data generated by industrial processes, IoT devices, or other sources.
Google BigQuery Key Concepts
Some important concepts related to Google BigQuery include:
- Projects: A project in BigQuery represents a top-level container for resources such as datasets, tables, and views.
- Datasets: A dataset is a container for tables, views, and other data resources in BigQuery.
- Tables: Tables are the primary data storage structure in BigQuery and consist of rows and columns.
- Schema: A schema defines the structure of a table, including column names, data types, and constraints.
OSI PI Data Historian Key Concepts
- PI Server: The core component of the PI System, responsible for data collection, storage, and management.
- PI Interfaces and PI Connectors: Software components that collect data from various sources and send it to the PI Server.
- PI Asset Framework: A modeling framework that allows users to create a hierarchical structure of assets and their associated metadata, making it easier to understand and analyze data.
- PI DataLink: An add-in for Microsoft Excel that enables users to access and analyze PI System data directly from Excel.
- PI ProcessBook: A visualization tool for creating interactive, graphical displays of PI System data.
Google BigQuery Architecture
Google BigQuery’s architecture is built on top of Google’s distributed infrastructure and is designed for high performance and scalability. At its core, BigQuery uses a columnar storage format called Capacitor, which enables efficient data compression and fast query performance. Data is automatically partitioned and distributed across multiple storage nodes, providing high availability and fault tolerance. BigQuery’s serverless architecture automatically allocates resources for queries and data storage, eliminating the need for users to manage infrastructure or capacity planning.
OSI PI Data Historian Architecture
OSI PI is a data management platform built around the PI Server, which is responsible for data collection, storage, and management. The PI System uses a highly efficient, proprietary time series database to store data. PI Interfaces and PI Connectors collect data from various sources and send it to the PI Server. The PI Asset Framework (AF) allows users to model their assets and their associated data in a hierarchical structure, making it easier to understand and analyze the data. Various client tools, such as PI DataLink and PI ProcessBook, enable users to access and visualize data stored in the PI System.
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Google BigQuery Features
BigQuery’s columnar storage format, Capacitor, enables efficient data compression and fast query performance, making it suitable for large-scale data analytics.
Integration with Google Cloud
BigQuery integrates seamlessly with other Google Cloud services, such as Cloud Storage, Dataflow, and Pub/Sub, making it easy to ingest, process, and analyze data from various sources.
Machine Learning Integration
BigQuery ML enables users to create and deploy machine learning models directly within BigQuery, simplifying the process of building and deploying machine learning applications.
OSI PI Data Historian Features
Data collection and storage
OSI PI’s PI Interfaces and PI Connectors enable seamless data collection from a wide variety of sources, while the PI Server efficiently stores and manages the data.
The PI System is highly scalable, allowing organizations to handle large volumes of data and a growing number of data sources without compromising performance.
The PI Asset Framework (AF) provides a powerful way to model assets and their associated data, making it easier to understand and analyze complex industrial processes.
Tools like PI DataLink and PI ProcessBook enable users to analyze and visualize data stored in the PI System, facilitating better decision-making and process optimization.
Google BigQuery Use Cases
Business Intelligence and Reporting
BigQuery is widely used for business intelligence and reporting, enabling users to analyze large volumes of data and generate insights to inform decision-making. Its fast query performance and seamless integration with popular BI tools, such as Google Data Studio and Tableau, make it an ideal solution for this use case.
Machine Learning and Predictive Analytics
BigQuery ML enables users to create and deploy machine learning models directly within BigQuery, simplifying the process of building and deploying machine learning applications. BigQuery’s fast query performance and support for large-scale data processing make it suitable for predictive analytics use cases.
Data Warehousing and ETL
BigQuery’s distributed architecture and columnar storage format make it an excellent choice for data warehousing and ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) workflows. Its seamless integration with other Google Cloud services, such as Cloud Storage and Dataflow, simplifies the process of ingesting and processing data from various sources.
OSI PI Data Historian Use Cases
OSI PI can help organizations identify inefficiencies, monitor performance, and optimize their industrial processes by providing real-time insights into time series data from sensors and other sources.
By analyzing historical data and detecting patterns or anomalies, OSI PI enables organizations to implement predictive maintenance strategies, reducing equipment downtime and maintenance costs.
OSI PI can be used to track energy consumption across various assets and processes, allowing organizations to identify areas for improvement and implement energy-saving measures.
Google BigQuery Pricing Model
Google BigQuery pricing is based on a pay-as-you-go model, with costs determined by data storage, query, and streaming. There are two main components to BigQuery pricing:
- Storage Pricing: Storage costs are based on the amount of data stored in BigQuery. Users are billed for both active and long-term storage, with long-term storage offered at a discounted rate for infrequently accessed data.
- Query Pricing: Query costs are based on the amount of data processed during a query. Users can choose between on-demand pricing, where they pay for the data processed per query, or flat-rate pricing, which provides a fixed monthly cost for a certain amount of query capacity.
OSI PI Data Historian Pricing Model
Pricing for OSI PI is typically based on a combination of factors such as the number of data sources, the number of users, and the level of support required. Pricing details are not publicly available, as they are provided on a quote basis depending on the specific needs of the organization.
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