Choosing the right database is a critical choice when building any software application. All databases have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to performance, so deciding which database has the most benefits and the most minor downsides for your specific use case and data model is an important decision. Below you will find an overview of the key concepts, architecture, features, use cases, and pricing models of ClickHouse and Apache Pinot so you can quickly see how they compare against each other.
The primary purpose of this article is to compare how ClickHouse and Apache Pinot perform for workloads involving time series data, not for all possible use cases. Time series data typically presents a unique challenge in terms of database performance. This is due to the high volume of data being written and the query patterns to access that data. This article doesn’t intend to make the case for which database is better; it simply provides an overview of each database so you can make an informed decision.
ClickHouse vs Apache Pinot Breakdown
ClickHouse can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or as a managed service.
Pinot can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or using a managed service
Real-time analytics, big data processing, event logging, monitoring, IoT, data warehousing
Real-time analytics, OLAP, user behavior analytics, clickstream analysis, ad tech, log analytics
Horizontally scalable, supports distributed query processing and parallel execution
Horizontally scalable, supports distributed architectures for high availability and performance
ClickHouse is an open source columnar database management system designed for high-performance online analytical processing (OLAP) tasks. It was developed by Yandex, a leading Russian technology company. ClickHouse is known for its ability to process large volumes of data in real-time, providing fast query performance and real-time analytics. Its columnar storage architecture enables efficient data compression and faster query execution, making it suitable for large-scale data analytics and business intelligence applications.
Apache Pinot Overview
Apache Pinot is a real-time distributed OLAP datastore, designed to answer complex analytical queries with low latency. It was initially developed at LinkedIn and later open-sourced in 2015. Pinot is well-suited for handling large-scale data and real-time analytics, providing near-instantaneous responses to complex queries on large datasets. It is used by several large organizations, such as LinkedIn, Microsoft, and Uber.
ClickHouse for Time Series Data
ClickHouse can be used for storing and analyzing time series data effectively, although it is not explicitly optimized for working with time series data. While ClickHouse can query time series data very quickly once ingested, it tends to struggle with very high write scenarios where data needs to be ingested in smaller batches so it can be analyzed in real time.
Apache Pinot for Time Series Data
Apache Pinot is a solid choice for working with time series data due to its columnar storage and real-time ingestion capabilities. Pinot’s ability to ingest data from streams like Apache Kafka ensures that time series data can be analyzed as it is being generated, in addition to having options for bulk ingesting data.
ClickHouse Key Concepts
- Columnar storage: ClickHouse stores data in a columnar format, which means that data for each column is stored separately. This enables efficient compression and faster query execution, as only the required columns are read during query execution.
- Distributed processing: ClickHouse supports distributed processing, allowing queries to be executed across multiple nodes in a cluster, improving query performance and scalability.
- Data replication: ClickHouse provides data replication, ensuring data availability and fault tolerance in case of hardware failures or node outages.
- Materialized Views: ClickHouse supports materialized views, which are precomputed query results stored as tables. Materialized views can significantly improve query performance, as they allow for faster data retrieval by avoiding the need to recompute the results for each query.
Apache Pinot Key Concepts
- Segment: A segment is the basic unit of data storage in Pinot. It is a columnar storage format that contains a subset of the table’s data.
- Table: A table in Pinot is a collection of segments.
- Controller: The controller manages the metadata and orchestrates data ingestion, query execution, and cluster management.
- Broker: The broker is responsible for receiving queries, routing them to the appropriate servers, and returning the results to the client.
- Server: The server stores segments and processes queries on those segments.
ClickHouse’s architecture is designed to support high-performance analytics on large datasets. ClickHouse stores data in a columnar format. This enables efficient data compression and faster query execution, as only the required columns are read during query execution. ClickHouse also supports distributed processing, which allows for queries to be executed across multiple nodes in a cluster. ClickHouse uses the MergeTree storage engine as its primary table engine. MergeTree is designed for high-performance OLAP tasks and supports data replication, data partitioning, and indexing.
Apache Pinot Architecture
Pinot is a distributed, columnar datastore that uses a hybrid data model, combining features of both NoSQL and SQL databases. Its architecture consists of three main components: Controller, Broker, and Server. The Controller manages metadata and cluster operations, while Brokers handle query routing and Servers store and process data. Pinot’s columnar storage format enables efficient compression and quick query processing.
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ClickHouse is designed for real-time analytics and can process large volumes of data with low latency, providing fast query performance and real-time insights.
ClickHouse’s columnar storage format enables efficient data compression, reducing storage requirements and improving query performance.
ClickHouse supports materialized views, which can significantly improve query performance by precomputing and storing query results as tables.
Apache Pinot Features
Pinot supports real-time data ingestion from Kafka and other streaming sources, allowing for up-to-date analytics.
Pinot’s distributed architecture and partitioning capabilities enable horizontal scaling to handle large datasets and high query loads.
Low-latency Query Processing
Pinot’s columnar storage format and various performance optimizations allow for near-instantaneous responses to complex queries.
ClickHouse Use Cases
Large-scale data analytics
ClickHouse’s high-performance query engine and columnar storage format make it suitable for large-scale data analytics and business intelligence applications.
ClickHouse’s real-time analytics capabilities enable organizations to generate real-time reports and dashboards, providing up-to-date insights for decision-making.
Log and event data analysis
ClickHouse’s ability to process large volumes of data in real-time makes it a suitable choice for log and event data analysis, such as analyzing web server logs or application events.
Apache Pinot Use Cases
Pinot is designed to support real-time analytics, making it suitable for use cases that require up-to-date insights on large-scale data, such as monitoring and alerting systems, fraud detection, and recommendation engines.
Ad Tech and User Analytics
Apache Pinot is often used in the advertising technology and user analytics space, where low-latency, high-concurrency analytics are crucial for understanding user behavior, optimizing ad campaigns, and personalizing user experiences.
Anomaly Detection and Monitoring
Pinot’s real-time analytics capabilities make it suitable for anomaly detection and monitoring use cases, enabling users to identify unusual patterns or trends in their data and take corrective action as needed.
ClickHouse Pricing Model
ClickHouse is an open source database and can be deployed on your own hardware. The developers of ClickHouse have also recently created ClickHouse Cloud which is a managed service for deploying ClickHouse.
Apache Pinot Pricing Model
As an open-source project, Apache Pinot is free to use. However, organizations may incur costs related to hardware, infrastructure, and support when deploying and managing a Pinot cluster. There are no specific pricing options or deployment models tied to Apache Pinot itself.
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