Choosing the right database is a critical choice when building any software application. All databases have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to performance, so deciding which database has the most benefits and the most minor downsides for your specific use case and data model is an important decision. Below you will find an overview of the key concepts, architecture, features, use cases, and pricing models of Kdb and MariaDB so you can quickly see how they compare against each other.
The primary purpose of this article is to compare how Kdb and MariaDB perform for workloads involving time series data, not for all possible use cases. Time series data typically presents a unique challenge in terms of database performance. This is due to the high volume of data being written and the query patterns to access that data. This article doesn’t intend to make the case for which database is better; it simply provides an overview of each database so you can make an informed decision.
Kdb vs MariaDB Breakdown
Time series and columnar database
Kdb can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or as a hybrid solution.
MariaDB can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or as a hybrid solution, and is compatible with various operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and macOS.
High-frequency trading, financial services, market data analysis, IoT, real-time analytics
Web applications, transaction processing, e-commerce
Highly scalable with multi-threading and multi-node support, suitable for large-scale data processing
Supports replication and sharding for horizontal scaling, as well as query optimization and caching for improved performance
kdb+ is a high-performance columnar, time series database developed by Kx Systems. Released in 2003, kdb+ is designed to efficiently manage large volumes of data, with a primary focus on financial data, such as stock market trades and quotes. It is built on the principles of the q programming language, which is a descendant of APL and K. The database is known for its speed, scalability, and ability to process both real-time and historical data.
MariaDB is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS) that was created as a fork of MySQL in 2009 by the original developers of MySQL, led by Michael Widenius. The primary goal of MariaDB was to provide an open-source and community-driven alternative to MySQL, which was acquired by Oracle Corporation in 2008. MariaDB is compatible with MySQL and has enhanced features, better performance, and improved security. It is widely used by organizations worldwide and is supported by the MariaDB Foundation, which ensures its continued open-source development.
Kdb for Time Series Data
kdb+ is designed to store time series data, making it a natural fit for applications that require high-speed querying and analysis of large volumes of data. Its columnar storage format allows for efficient compression and retrieval of time series data, while its q language provides a powerful and expressive means to manipulate and analyze the data. kdb+ is especially strong for financial data, though it can be used for other types of time series data as well.
MariaDB for Time Series Data
While MariaDB is not specifically designed for time series data, it can be used to store, process, and analyze time series data due to its flexible and extensible architecture. SQL support, along with analytics optimized storage engines like ColumnStore make it suitable for handling time series data at smaller levels of data volume.
Kdb Key Concepts
- q language: A high-level, domain-specific programming language used for querying and manipulating data in kdb+. It combines SQL-like syntax with a functional programming style.
- Columnar storage: kdb+ stores data in columns, rather than rows, which allows for faster querying and analysis of time series data.
- Tables: kdb+ stores data in tables, which are similar to relational tables, but with a focus on columnar storage and time series data.
- Splayed tables: A table storage format where each column is stored in a separate file, further enhancing query performance.
MariaDB Key Concepts
- Storage Engines: MariaDB supports multiple storage engines, each optimized for specific types of workloads or data storage requirements. Examples include InnoDB, MyISAM, Aria, and ColumnStore.
- Galera Cluster: A synchronous, multi-master replication solution for MariaDB that allows for high availability, fault tolerance, and load balancing.
- MaxScale: A database proxy for MariaDB that provides advanced features such as query routing, load balancing, and security.
- Connectors: MariaDB provides a variety of connectors to allow applications to interact with the database using various programming languages and APIs.
kdb+ is a columnar, time series database that employs a custom data model tailored for efficient storage and querying of time series data. It does not use traditional SQL, but instead relies on the q language for querying and data manipulation. The architecture of kdb+ is designed for both in-memory and on-disk storage, with the ability to scale horizontally across multiple machines. The primary components of kdb+ are the database engine, the q language interpreter, and the built-in web server.
MariaDB is a relational database that uses the SQL language for querying and data manipulation. Its architecture is based on a client-server model, with clients interacting with the server through various connectors and APIs. MariaDB supports multiple storage engines, allowing users to choose the most suitable engine for their specific use case. The database also offers replication and clustering options for high availability and load balancing.
Free Time-Series Database Guide
Get a comprehensive review of alternatives and critical requirements for selecting yours.
kdb+ is known for its speed and performance, with its columnar storage format and q language allowing for rapid querying and analysis of time series data.
kdb+ is designed to scale horizontally, making it suitable for handling large volumes of data across multiple machines.
The q language is a powerful, expressive, and high-level language used for querying and manipulating data in kdb+. It combines SQL-like syntax with a functional programming style.
MariaDB is fully compatible with MySQL, making it easy to migrate existing MySQL applications and databases.
MariaDB supports multiple storage engines, allowing users to choose the best option for their specific use case.
Replication and Clustering
MariaDB offers built-in replication and supports Galera Cluster for high availability, fault tolerance, and load balancing. Security: MariaDB provides advanced security features such as data encryption, secure connections, and role-based access control.
Kdb Use Cases
Financial data analysis
kdb+ is widely used in the financial industry for the storage and analysis of stock market trades, quotes, and other time series financial data.
kdb+ is a popular choice for high-frequency trading applications due to its high performance and ability to handle large volumes of real-time data.
IoT and sensor data
kdb+ can be used to store and analyze large volumes of time series data generated by IoT devices and sensors, though its primary focus remains on financial data.
MariaDB Use Cases
MariaDB is a popular choice for web applications due to its compatibility with MySQL, performance improvements, and open-source nature.
Organizations looking to migrate from MySQL to an open-source alternative can easily transition to MariaDB, thanks to its compatibility and enhanced features.
As a relational database MariaDB is a good fit for any application that requires strong transactional guarantees.
Kdb Pricing Model
kdb+ is a commercial product, with pricing depending on the deployment model and the number of cores or servers used. Kx Systems offers a free 32-bit version of kdb+ for non-commercial use, with limitations on the amount of memory that can be used. For commercial deployments and full-featured versions, users must contact Kx Systems for pricing details.
MariaDB Pricing Model
MariaDB is an open-source database, which means it is free to download, use, and modify. However, for organizations that require professional support, the MariaDB Corporation offers various subscription plans, including MariaDB SkySQL, a fully managed cloud database service. Pricing for support subscriptions and the SkySQL service depends on the chosen plan, service level, and resource usage.
Get started with InfluxDB for free
InfluxDB Cloud is the fastest way to start storing and analyzing your time series data.