Choosing the right database is a critical choice when building any software application. All databases have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to performance, so deciding which database has the most benefits and the most minor downsides for your specific use case and data model is an important decision. Below you will find an overview of the key concepts, architecture, features, use cases, and pricing models of ClickHouse and MySQL so you can quickly see how they compare against each other.
The primary purpose of this article is to compare how ClickHouse and MySQL perform for workloads involving time series data, not for all possible use cases. Time series data typically presents a unique challenge in terms of database performance. This is due to the high volume of data being written and the query patterns to access that data. This article doesn’t intend to make the case for which database is better; it simply provides an overview of each database so you can make an informed decision.
ClickHouse vs MySQL Breakdown
ClickHouse can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or as a managed service.
MySQL uses a client-server model with a multi-layered server design. It supports the SQL query language and offers various storage engines, such as InnoDB and MyISAM, for different use cases. MySQL can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or as a managed service.
GNU General Public License v2 (for the open-source Community Edition)
Real-time analytics, big data processing, event logging, monitoring, IoT, data warehousing
Web applications, e-commerce, data warehousing, content management systems, business applications
Horizontally scalable, supports distributed query processing and parallel execution
Supports vertical scaling by adding more resources to a single node; horizontal scaling can be achieved through replication, sharding, and third-party tools
ClickHouse is an open source columnar database management system designed for high-performance online analytical processing (OLAP) tasks. It was developed by Yandex, a leading Russian technology company. ClickHouse is known for its ability to process large volumes of data in real-time, providing fast query performance and real-time analytics. Its columnar storage architecture enables efficient data compression and faster query execution, making it suitable for large-scale data analytics and business intelligence applications.
MySQL is an open source relational database management system that was first released in 1995. It is one of the most popular databases worldwide due to its ease of use, reliability, and performance. MySQL is widely used for web applications, online transaction processing, and data warehousing. Oracle Corporation acquired MySQL in 2010, but it remains open source software with an active community of contributors.
ClickHouse for Time Series Data
ClickHouse can be used for storing and analyzing time series data effectively, although it is not explicitly optimized for working with time series data. While ClickHouse can query time series data very quickly once ingested, it tends to struggle with very high write scenarios where data needs to be ingested in smaller batches so it can be analyzed in real time.
MySQL for Time Series Data
MySQL can be used for storing and analyzing time series data, but it will not be as efficient as a dedicated time series databases. MySQL’s flexibility and support for various indexing techniques can make it a suitable choice for small to medium sized time series datasets. For large-scale time series data workloads, with high write throughput or use cases where low latency queries are required, MySQL will tend to struggle unless highly customized.
ClickHouse Key Concepts
- Columnar storage: ClickHouse stores data in a columnar format, which means that data for each column is stored separately. This enables efficient compression and faster query execution, as only the required columns are read during query execution.
- Distributed processing: ClickHouse supports distributed processing, allowing queries to be executed across multiple nodes in a cluster, improving query performance and scalability.
- Data replication: ClickHouse provides data replication, ensuring data availability and fault tolerance in case of hardware failures or node outages.
- Materialized Views: ClickHouse supports materialized views, which are precomputed query results stored as tables. Materialized views can significantly improve query performance, as they allow for faster data retrieval by avoiding the need to recompute the results for each query.
MySQL Key Concepts
- Table: A collection of related data organized in rows and columns, which is the primary structure for storing data in MySQL.
- Primary Key: A unique identifier for each row in a table, used to enforce data integrity and enable efficient querying.
- Foreign Key: A column or set of columns in a table that refers to the primary key in another table, used to establish relationships between tables.
ClickHouse’s architecture is designed to support high-performance analytics on large datasets. ClickHouse stores data in a columnar format. This enables efficient data compression and faster query execution, as only the required columns are read during query execution. ClickHouse also supports distributed processing, which allows for queries to be executed across multiple nodes in a cluster. ClickHouse uses the MergeTree storage engine as its primary table engine. MergeTree is designed for high-performance OLAP tasks and supports data replication, data partitioning, and indexing.
MySQL is a relational database management system that uses SQL for defining and manipulating data. It follows the client-server model, where a MySQL server accepts connections from multiple clients and processes their queries. MySQL’s architecture includes a storage engine framework that allows users to choose from different storage engines, such as InnoDB, MyISAM, or Memory, to optimize the database for specific use cases.
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ClickHouse is designed for real-time analytics and can process large volumes of data with low latency, providing fast query performance and real-time insights.
ClickHouse’s columnar storage format enables efficient data compression, reducing storage requirements and improving query performance.
ClickHouse supports materialized views, which can significantly improve query performance by precomputing and storing query results as tables.
MySQL supports transactions and adheres to the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) properties, ensuring data integrity and consistency.
MySQL can scale both vertically and horizontally, depending on the storage engine and configuration.
Replication and high availability
MySQL supports various replication techniques, including master-slave and master-master replication, to provide high availability and fault tolerance.
ClickHouse Use Cases
Large-scale data analytics
ClickHouse’s high-performance query engine and columnar storage format make it suitable for large-scale data analytics and business intelligence applications.
ClickHouse’s real-time analytics capabilities enable organizations to generate real-time reports and dashboards, providing up-to-date insights for decision-making.
Log and event data analysis
ClickHouse’s ability to process large volumes of data in real-time makes it a suitable choice for log and event data analysis, such as analyzing web server logs or application events.
MySQL Use Cases
MySQL is a popular choice for powering web applications, content management systems, and e-commerce platforms due to its flexibility, ease of use, and performance.
Online transaction processing (OLTP)
MySQL is suitable for OLTP systems that require high concurrency, fast response times, and support for transactions.
While not specifically designed for data warehousing, MySQL can be used for small to medium-sized data warehouses, leveraging its support for indexing, partitioning, and other optimization techniques.
ClickHouse Pricing Model
ClickHouse is an open source database and can be deployed on your own hardware. The developers of ClickHouse have also recently created ClickHouse Cloud which is a managed service for deploying ClickHouse.
MySQL Pricing Model
MySQL is available in multiple editions with different feature sets and pricing models. The MySQL Community Edition is open source and free to use, while the MySQL Enterprise Edition includes additional features, such as advanced security, monitoring, and management tools, and requires a subscription. Pricing for the Enterprise Edition depends on the number of server instances and the level of support required.
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