Choosing the right database is a critical choice when building any software application. All databases have different strengths and weaknesses when it comes to performance, so deciding which database has the most benefits and the most minor downsides for your specific use case and data model is an important decision. Below you will find an overview of the key concepts, architecture, features, use cases, and pricing models of InfluxDB and Apache Druid so you can quickly see how they compare against each other.
The primary purpose of this article is to compare how InfluxDB and Apache Druid perform for workloads involving time series data, not for all possible use cases. Time series data typically presents a unique challenge in terms of database performance. This is due to the high volume of data being written and the query patterns to access that data. This article doesn’t intend to make the case for which database is better; it simply provides an overview of each database so you can make an informed decision.
InfluxDB vs Apache Druid Breakdown
Time series database
Cloud native architecture that can be used as a managed cloud service or self-managed on your own hardware locally
Druid can be deployed on-premises, in the cloud, or using a managed service
Monitoring, observability, IoT, real-time analytics
Real-time analytics, OLAP, time series data, event-driven data, log analytics, ad tech, user behavior analytics
Horizontally scalable with decoupled storage and compute with InfluxDB 3.0
Horizontally scalable, supports distributed architectures for high availability and performance
InfluxDB is a high-performance, time series database capable of storing any form of time series data, such as metrics, events, logs and traces. InfluxDB is developed by InfluxData and first released in 2013. InfluxDB is an open source database written in Go, with a focus on performance, scalability, and developer productivity. The database is optimized for handling time series data at scale, making it a popular choice for use cases involving monitoring performance metrics, IoT data, and real-time analytics.
InfluxDB 3.0 is the newest version of InfluxDB, currently available in InfluxDB Cloud Serverless and InfluxDB Cloud Dedicated. Built in Rust, a modern programming language designed for performance, safety, and memory management. InfluxDB also features a decoupled architecture that allows compute and storage to be scaled independently. InfluxDB 3.0 provides query support for both SQL and InfluxQL (custom SQL-like query language with added support for time-based functions).
Apache Druid Overview
Apache Druid is an open-source, real-time analytics database designed for high-performance querying and data ingestion. Originally developed by Metamarkets in 2011 and later donated to the Apache Software Foundation in 2018, Druid has gained popularity for its ability to handle large volumes of data with low latency. With a unique architecture that combines elements of time series databases, search systems, and columnar storage, Druid is particularly well-suited for use cases involving event-driven data and interactive analytics.
InfluxDB for Time Series Data
InfluxDB is specifically designed for time series data, making it well-suited for applications that involve tracking and analyzing data points over time. It excels in scenarios where data is being written continuously at high volumes while users also require the ability to query that data quickly after ingest for monitoring and real time analytics use cases.
Apache Druid for Time Series Data
Apache Druid is designed for real time analytics and can be a good fit for working with time series data that needs to be analyzed quickly after being written. Druid also offers integrations for storing historical data in cheaper object storage so historical time series data can also be analyzed using Druid.
InfluxDB Key Concepts
- Columnar storage: InfluxDB stores data in a column-oriented format, using Parquet for persistent file storage and Apache Arrow as the in-memory representation of data. Columnar storage results in better data compression and faster queries for analytics workloads.
- Data Model: The InfluxDB data model will be familiar to anyone who has worked with other database systems. At the highest level are buckets, which are similar to what other systems call databases. InfluxDB measurements are synonymous with tables. Specific data points for a measurement contain tags and values. Tags are used as part of the primary key for querying data and should be used for identifying information used for filtering during queries. InfluxDB is schemaless so new fields can be added without requiring migrations or modifying a schema.
- Integrations: InfluxDB is built to be flexible and fit into your application’s architecture. One key aspect of this is the many ways InfluxDB makes it easy to read and write data. To start, all database functionality can be accessed via HTTP API or with the InfluxDB CLI. For writing data InfluxDB created Telegraf, a tool that can collect data from hundreds of different sources via plugins and write that data to InfluxDB. Client libraries are also available for the most popular programming languages to allow writing and querying data.
- Decoupled architecture: InfluxDB 3.0 features a decoupled architecture which allows query compute, data ingestion, and storage to be scaled independently. This allows InfluxDB to be fine-tuned for your use case and results in significant cost savings.
- Query Languages: InfluxDB can be queried using standard SQL or InfluxQL, an SQL dialect with a number of specialized functions useful for working with time series data.
- Retention Policies: InfluxDB allows you to define retention policies that determine how long data is stored before being automatically deleted. This is useful for managing the storage of high volume time series data.
Apache Druid Key Concepts
- Data Ingestion: The process of importing data into Druid from various sources, such as streaming or batch data sources.
- Segments: The smallest unit of data storage in Druid, segments are immutable, partitioned, and compressed.
- Data Rollup: The process of aggregating raw data during ingestion to reduce storage requirements and improve query performance.
- Nodes: Druid’s architecture consists of different types of nodes, including Historical, Broker, Coordinator, and MiddleManager/Overlord, each with specific responsibilities.
- Indexing Service: Druid’s indexing service manages the process of ingesting data, creating segments, and publishing them to deep storage.
At a high level, InfluxDB’s architecture is designed to optimize storage and query performance for time series data. The exact architecture of InfluxDB will vary slightly depending on the version and how you deploy InfluxDB.
InfluxDB 3.0’s architecture can be broken down into four key components that operate almost independently from each other, allowing for InfluxDB to be extremely flexible in terms of configuration. These components are are data ingest, data querying, data compaction, and garbage collection. Data is written via the ingesters with millisecond latency. This data can be queried almost immediately by the data queriers while in the background the compactor takes the newly written data files and combines them into larger files that will be sent to object storage. The garbage collector is responsible for data retention and space reclamations by scheduling soft and hard deletion of data.
They key part of InfluxDB’s architecture is the separation of the ingest and query components, which allows each to be scaled independently depending on the current write and query workload. The querier being able to seamlessly pull in recently written data from the ingesters as well as from object storage allows data to be stored cheaply without increasing query latency.
Apache Druid Architecture
Apache Druid is a powerful distributed data store designed for real-time analytics on large datasets. Within its architecture, several core components play pivotal roles in ensuring its efficiency and scalability. Here is an overview of the core components that power Apache Druid.
- Historical Nodes are fundamental to Druid’s data-serving capabilities. Their primary responsibility is to serve stored data to queries. To achieve this, they load segments from deep storage, retain them in memory, and then cater to the queries on these segments. When considering deployment and management, these nodes are typically stationed on machines endowed with significant memory and CPU resources. Their scalability is evident as they can be expanded horizontally simply by incorporating more nodes.
- Broker Nodes act as the gatekeepers for incoming queries. Their main function is to channel these queries to the appropriate historical nodes or real-time nodes. Intriguingly, they are stateless, which means they can be scaled out to accommodate an increase in query concurrency.
- Coordinator Nodes have a managerial role, overseeing the data distribution across historical nodes. Their decisions on which segments to load or drop are based on specific configurable rules. In terms of deployment, a Druid setup usually requires just one active coordinator node, with a backup node on standby for failover scenarios.
- Overlord Nodes dictate the assignment of ingestion tasks, directing them to either middle manager or indexer nodes. Their deployment mirrors that of the coordinator nodes, with typically one active overlord and a backup for redundancy.
- MiddleManager and Indexer Nodes are the workhorses of data ingestion in Druid. While MiddleManagers initiate short-lived tasks for data ingestion, indexers are designed for long-lived tasks. Given their intensive operations, these nodes demand high CPU and memory resources. Their scalability is flexible, allowing horizontal expansion based on the volume of data ingestion.
- Deep Storage is a component that serves as Druid’s persistent storage unit. Druid integrates with various blob storage solutions like HDFS, S3, and Google Cloud Storage.
- Metadata Storage is the repository for crucial metadata about segments, tasks, and configurations. Druid is compatible with popular databases for this purpose, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Derby.
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High-performance storage and querying
InfluxDB is optimized for time series data, providing high-performance storage and querying capabilities. In terms of storage InfluxDB is able to scale effortlessly due to its decoupled architecture. Object storage is used to persist data and query nodes can be scaled independently to improve query performance and capacity.
Compared to previous versions of InfluxDB, the newly released InfluxDB 3.0 compresses data 4.5x more effectively and queries are 2.5-45x faster depending on the type of query.
InfluxDB allows users to define retention policies that automatically delete data points after a specified duration. This feature helps manage data storage costs and ensures that only relevant data is retained.
InfluxDB’s storage engine automatically compacts data on disk, reducing storage requirements and improving query performance. With InfluxDB 3.0 data is stored using the Parquet file format to get even higher compression ratios on time series data.
Horizontal scaling and clustering
InfluxDB supports horizontal scaling and clustering, allowing users to distribute data across multiple nodes for increased performance and fault tolerance.
InfluxDB 3.0 is able to seamlessly move data from cheap object storage into faster storage for low latency queries without expensive SSD or high amounts of RAM utilization. This allows users to store data for longer at higher frequencies while still saving in storage costs.
Apache Druid Features
Apache Druid supports both real-time and batch data ingestion, allowing it to process data from various sources like Kafka, Hadoop, or local files. With built-in support for data partitioning, replication, and roll-up, Druid ensures high availability and efficient storage.
Scalability and Performance
Druid is designed to scale horizontally, providing support for large-scale deployments with minimal performance degradation. Its unique architecture allows for fast and efficient querying, making it suitable for use cases requiring low-latency analytics.
Druid stores data in a columnar format, enabling better compression and faster query performance compared to row-based storage systems. Columnar storage also allows Druid to optimize queries by only accessing relevant columns.
Druid’s indexing service creates segments with time-based partitioning, optimizing data storage and retrieval for time-series data. This feature significantly improves query performance for time-based queries. Data Rollups
Druid’s data rollup feature aggregates raw data during ingestion, reducing storage requirements and improving query performance. This feature is particularly beneficial for use cases involving high-cardinality data or large volumes of similar data points.
InfluxDB Use Cases
Monitoring and alerting
InfluxDB is widely used for monitoring and alerting purposes, as it can efficiently store and process time series data generated by various systems, applications, and devices. With its high-performance query engine and integration with visualization tools like Grafana, users can create real-time dashboards and set up alerts based on specific conditions or thresholds.
IoT data storage and analysis
Due to its high write and query performance, InfluxDB is an ideal choice for storing and analyzing IoT data generated by sensors, devices, and applications. Users can leverage InfluxDB’s scalability and retention policies to manage large volumes of time series data, and use its powerful query languages to gain insights into the IoT ecosystem.
InfluxDB’s performance and flexibility make it suitable for real-time analytics use cases, such as tracking user behavior, monitoring application performance, and analyzing financial data. With its support for InfluxQL and SQL, users can perform complex data analysis and aggregation in real-time, enabling them to make data-driven decisions.
Apache Druid Use Cases
Apache Druid provides support for geospatial data and queries, making it suitable for use cases that involve location-based data, such as tracking the movement of assets, analyzing user locations, or monitoring the distribution of events. Its ability to efficiently process large volumes of geospatial data enables users to gain insights and make data-driven decisions based on location information.
Machine Learning and AI
Druid’s high-performance data processing capabilities can be leveraged for preprocessing and feature extraction in machine learning and AI workflows. Its support for real-time data ingestion and low-latency querying make it suitable for use cases that require real-time predictions or insights, such as recommendation systems or predictive maintenance.
Apache Druid’s low-latency querying and real-time data ingestion capabilities make it an ideal solution for real-time analytics use cases, such as monitoring application performance, user behavior, or business metrics.
InfluxDB Pricing Model
InfluxDB offers several pricing options, including a free open source version, a cloud-based offering, and an enterprise edition for on-premises deployment:
- InfluxDB Cloud Serverless: InfluxDB Cloud Serverless is a managed, cloud-based offering with a pay-as-you-go pricing model. It provides additional features, such as monitoring, alerting, and data visualization. InfluxDB Cloud is available across all major cloud providers.
- InfluxDB Cloud Dedicated - This is a managed cloud solution that provides an isolated InfluxDB instance on dedicated hardware for use cases that require isolation or benefit from being able to specify and fine-tune hardware configuration.
- InfluxDB Enterprise: On-prem solution with enterprise features for security and support for clustering and other horizontal scaling options.
- InfluxDB Open Source: The open source version of InfluxDB is free to use and provides the core functionality of the database.
Apache Druid Pricing Model
Apache Druid is an open source project, and as such, it can be self-hosted at no licensing cost. However, organizations that choose to self-host Druid will incur expenses related to infrastructure, management, and support when deploying and operating Druid in their environment. These costs will depend on the organization’s specific requirements and the chosen infrastructure, whether it’s on-premises or cloud-based.
For those who prefer a managed solution, there are cloud services available that offer Apache Druid as a managed service, such as Imply Cloud. With managed services, the provider handles infrastructure, management, and support, simplifying the deployment and operation of Druid. Pricing for these managed services will vary depending on the provider and the selected service tier, which may include factors such as data storage, query capacity, and data ingestion rates.
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